On 27 June, 2009, I published the 4th. edition of the CD-ROM
entitled: "The Story of the ENIGMA: History, Technology
and Deciphering" It is the most complete source of information on the
Enigma in a single publication. It contains twice the material in the 3rd
edition and includes a complete History, Thousands of Photographs, Books,
Wiring Diagrams, Enigma Simulator Programs, Videos, Information on the
Russian cipher machine FIALKA and many others. Click above for more information.
(Revisions & Corrections for all Enigma CD-ROM editions:)
10 July, 2010:
FRODE WEIERUD'S name is misspelled in the Acknowledgements section on page 3. Frode has made truly extensive contributions to our knowledge of the history of the Enigmma and I deeply regret this error.
20 July, 2010:
Additions to the chapter on BUILDING YOUR OWN ENIGMA:
A rather extraordinary Enigma replica has been built by Gurt, PA3GUF.
You may view his work at: http://www.pa3guf.nl/index_bestanden/Page543.htm
2 February, 2011:
Rare Photograph Additions to both the Enigma book and the Enigma Library CD-ROM:
I am very grateful to Helge Fykse in Norway for permission to include these wonderful original photographs of Enigmas in Action. You may see the Enigma photographs that will be added to my future editions at: http://w1tp.com/enigma/hfykse.htm
and you may visit Helge Fyske's entire collection at: http://www.laud.no/ww2
6 February, 2011:
The www.w1tp.com/enigma museum has acquired a WW-2 German Navy 4 rotor Enigma Cipher Machine that was thrown into a German lake where it has rested underwater for 65 years. The Enigma has been carefully inspected and photographed and an autopsy has been performed to try to reconstruct the details of it's death. Please visit: http://w1tp.com/enigma/euw1.htm for details and photographs.
Page 4 and elsewhere: “Weirud”. Should be “Weierud”.
Page 16 and elsewhere: “Gluhlampenmaschine”. Would be better with the proper two dots over the "u".
Page 16 and elsewhere: “Zahlwerk”. Would be better with the proper two dots over the "a".
Page 17 and elsewhere: “Funkschlussel”. Would be better with the proper two dots over the "u"
Page 19: Here is a transliteration and translation of the cleaning instructions for the Enigma:
Z u r B e a c h t u n g !
Beachte die Gebrauchsanleitung für die Chiffriermaschine (H. Dv. g. 13)
Take note of these usage instructions for cipher machine (H. Dv. g. 13)
1. Zur Säuberung der Walzenkontakte alle Walzen mehrmals gegenseitig vor- und rückwärts drehen.
1. To clean the rotor contacts, turn all rotors against each other back and forth several times.
2. Zur Säuberung der Tastenkontakte sämtliche Tasten vor Einschaltung des Stromes mehrmals kräftig
herunter drücken und hoch schnellen lassen, wobei eine Taste dauernd gedrückt bleibt
2. To clean the key contacts, press each key down hard and allow it to come up quickly,
while holding another key continuously pressed.
3. Bei Einstellung der in den Fenstern sichtbaren Zeichen beachten, daß die Walzen richtig gerastet sind.
3. Make sure by checking in the windows that the rotors are correctly inserted.
4. Die unverwechselbaren doppelpoligen Stecker sind bis zum Anschlag in ihre Buchsenpaare einzuführen.
Die vordere Holzklappe ist danach zu schließen, da sonst 3 Lampen zugleich aufleuchten können.
4. The double-pole plugs are to be pushed to a firm stop into the double sockets.
Then, the front wood flap is to be closed; if this is not done, 3 lamps can light up at the same time.
5. Leuchtet bei Tastendruck keine Lampe auf, so sind die Batterie, ihre Kontaktfedern, ihre Anschlüsse
am Umschalter und der Umschalter zu prüfen.
5. If no lamp lights up with a keystroke, then check the battery, the lamp contacts, their connections,
and the key-switches.
6. Leuchten bei Tastendruck eine oder mehrere Lampen nicht auf, so sind die entsprechenden Lampen,
die Kontakte unter ihnen, die Kabel der doppelpoligen Stecker, die Steckerbuchsen einschließlich
ihrer Kurzschlußbleche, die Walzenkontakte, die Arbeitskontakte unter den jeweils gedrückten Tasten
und die Ruhekontakte unter den mit ihnen korrespondierenden Tasten zu prüfen und bei etwa vorhandenen
Verschmutzungen und Oxydationen zu säubern. (Siehe auch Ziffer 2.)
6. If one or more lamps do not light when a key is pressed, then check the appropriate lamps, their connections, the cables of the double-pole plugs, the plugboard sockets and their shorting bars, the rotor contacts, and the make and normally-closed contacts under the keys. If there is any contamination or rusting to be found, then clean the appropriate areas. (See also number 2.)
Von Maschine Nr. A 4388 ab dient zur Lampenprüfung die Öffnung auf der rechten Lampenfeldseite.
From machine No. A 4388 onwards, the opening on the right side of the lamp panel can be used for lamp examination.
Von Maschine Nr. A 4388 ab dienen zur Kabelprüfung die äußerste linke und rechte Buchse der mittleren
Reihe am Steckerbrett und die Kabelprüflampe auf der linken Lampenfeldseite.
From machine No. A 4388 onwards, the outermost left and right sockets of the middle row of the plugboard together
with the cable test lamp on the left side of the lamp panel can be used for cable testing.
7. Walzenachse und Walzenbuchsen sind sauber zu halten und wie alle übrigen Lagerstellen hin und wieder
mit harz-und säurefreiem Öl leicht einzufetten. Die festen Kontakte der Walzen sind alle 6.8
Wochen mit Polierpapier über zu schleifen und mit einem wenig getränkten Öllappen abzureiben.
Die Tastenkontakte, die Lampenkontakte und die Kurzschlußbleche sind vor Öl zu schützen.
7. Rotor axle and rotor sockets are to be kept clean and be lightly greased every so often with acid-free oil. The fixed contacts of the rotors are to be cleaned every 6 to 8 weeks with polishing paper and are to be rubbed with a rag, lightly soaked with oil. The key contacts, the lamp contacts and the shorting bars of the plugboard are to be protected against oil.
8. Schlüsselangaben erfolgen entweder durch Zahlen oder Buchstaben.
8. Key-setting is done using either numbers or letters.
Zum Umsetzen der Zahlen in Buchstaben oder umgekehrt dient nachstehende Tafel:
For the conversion of numbers to letters or vice versa, the following table can be used:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Page 20 and perhaps elsewhere: “HEIL”. Should be “HELL”.
Page 23: “Detailed Path of the Voltage from Battery to Bulb” – a step is missing.
1. Battery -4v. An internal 4 volt battery or an external DC source.
1. Battery -4v. An internal 4 volt battery or an external DC source
2. Keyboard key contacts. The normally open contacts are closed when a key is pressed. This passes the voltage along the appropriate letter’s wire to the input disk or input connector.
2. Keyboard key contacts. The normally open contacts are closed when a key is pressed. This passes the voltage along the appropriate letter’s wire to the plugboard.
3. Input disk or input connector. The input disk carries the voltage into the right hand end of the set of three rotors and the reflector.
3. Plugboard. If no plug is inserted in the socket in the plugboard, an internal shorting bar simply passes the voltage directly to that key’s connection on the input disk or input connector. If a plug is inserted into the socket in the keyboard, the plug carries the voltage over to some other socket and from there to a different keyboard key’s connection on the input disk or input connector.
4. Rotors. 3 (rightmost), 2 (middle) and 1 (leftmost). The voltage enters the rightmost rotor (3) from the input disk or input connector and travels left through its wiring to the middle rotor (2), then left through its wiring to the leftmost rotor (1) where it travels left through this rotor’s wiring to the reflector.
4. Input disk or input connector. The input disk carries the voltage into the right hand end of the set of three rotors and the reflector.
5. Reflector. The reflector receives the voltage from the leftmost rotor (1) and its internal wiring sends the voltage back out along a different wire.
5. Rotors. 3 (rightmost), 2 (middle) and 1 (leftmost). The voltage enters the rightmost rotor (3) from the input disk or input connector and travels left through its wiring to the middle rotor (2), then left through its wiring to the leftmost rotor (1) where it travels left through this rotor’s wiring to the reflector.
6. Rotors again. 1 (leftmost), 2 (middle) and 3 (rightmost). The voltage enters the leftmost rotor (1) from the reflector and travels right through its writing to the middle rotor (2), then right through its wiring to the rightmost rotor (3) where it travels right through this rotor’s wiring to the input disk or input connector.
6. Reflector. The reflector receives the voltage from the leftmost rotor (1) and its internal wiring sends the voltage back out along a different wire.
7. Input disk or input connector. The input disk or input connector receives the voltage from the rightmost rotor (3) and carries it to the plugboard.
7. Rotors again. 1 (leftmost), 2 (middle) and 3 (rightmost). The voltage enters the leftmost rotor (1) from the reflector and travels right through its writing to the middle rotor (2), then right through its wiring to the rightmost rotor (3) where it travels right through this rotor’s wiring to the input disk or input connector.
8. Plugboard. If no plug is inserted in the socket in the plugboard, an internal shorting bar simply passes the voltage out to the keyboard’s normally closed contacts. If a plug is inserted into the socket in the keyboard, the plug carries the voltage over to some other socket and from there to a different keyboard key’s normally-closed contacts.
8. Input disk or input connector again. The input disk or input connector receives the voltage from the rightmost rotor (3) and carries it to the plugboard.
9. Keyboard switches again. The normally-closed contacts on the keyboard pass the voltage directly along to the appropriate light bulb.
9. Plugboard again. If no plug is inserted in the socket in the plugboard, an internal shorting bar simply passes the voltage out to the keyboard’s normally closed contacts. If a plug is inserted into the socket in the keyboard, the plug carries the voltage over to some other socket and from there to a different keyboard key’s normally-closed contacts.
10. Light bulbs. When a specific light bulb is illuminated, it lights up a single letter on the light panel.
10. Keyboard switches again. The normally-closed contacts on the keyboard pass the voltage directly along to the appropriate light bulb.
11. Light bulbs. When a specific light bulb is illuminated, it lights up a single letter on the light panel.
Page 27: Picture top right has caption: “Calbovocorressi”. Should be “Calvocorressi”.
Page 31: Paragraph beginning “Illustrated on the left”. Should be “Illustrated below”.
Page 52: “Durchmesser” means “Diameter”, and doesn’t therefore refer to the height.
The picture on Page 48 shows that the bulb is overall (glass plus metal thread part)
roughly 21mm long, 12 mm in diameter, and the glass part is around 6mm high.
Page 55/56 and elsewhere: “Grossdeutchland” should be “Grossdeutschland”.
Page 64/67 and elsewhere: Polish accents missing. “Rozycki” would be better as: “Rózycki" with the proper accent over the "o” and the proper dot over the "z".
Page 70. There is now a Polish Commemorative Enigma coin available. Jerry McCarthy has provided me with images of the front and back of the coin as well as English tranlations of the inscriptions. He tells me that this is the two Zloty coin and other denominations exist.
The first side reads:
"Rzeczpospolita Polska", which translates as "Republic of Poland"
The second side reads: "75 rocznica zlamania szyfru Enigmy" which
translates as "75th anniversary of breaking the Enigma cypher".
Also on this side are the names "Rejweski","Rózycki" , and "Zygalski".
(with the proper Polish accents over the O and z in Rozycki's name.
Page 75 and elsewhere: “Donitz” would be better as “Doenitz” or “Dönitz” with the proper two dots over the "o".
Page 85. The posters under the Fialka machine read as follows in English:
DO NOT TALK!
STRICTLY KEEP MILITARY AND STATE SECRETS !
Here is Jerry's direct translation of the sign:
Page 107. Jerry McCarthy has provided the information below about the Japanese characters on the light-panel.
Japanese is written in four different character sets, known as:
• Romaji (which is basically English letters),
• Katakana (which is a syllabary),
• Hiragana (which is also a syllabary), and
• Kanji (the full, “ornate” Chinese characters).
A syllabary is a method of writing a language where each character represents a syllable; in the case of Japanese, each syllable consists of a consonant followed by a vowel, with two exceptions:
• the letter “N” which can be considered to be a terminal syllable with no vowel, and
• syllables can also be single vowels.
So, the full range of Katakana looks like the table below, albeit with two provisos:
1) other consonants are possible, by applying “accents” to the characters in the table below. However, the Japanese crypto machine in question seems not to use any of these extended characters.
2) Some consonants are pronounced differently from what might be expected, depending on the following vowel; such variant characters are marked with a superscript number, which is explained in the second table.
As examples, a word such as “Tokyo” could be:
and “Shinkansen” could be .
In practice, neither word is spelled like this in real life; these examples
are intended merely to show the operation of the syllabic system.
For this machine, it seems that the 25 characters appear on the light panel
and 50 characters appear as two characters per key on the main keyboard; the
functionality of the two keys to the left of the main keyboard is to act as
shift keys, selecting between the two sets of 25 characters on the main
keyboard. It is assumed that the shift keys also slide a transparency in the
light panel, thereby allowing all 50 characters to be displayed.
Each character on the keyboard appears either in red (upper shift) or black
(lower shift), and the two shift keys are each marked in the matching color;
this color system is maintained in the following diagram:
The spelling of Hitler's first name should be Adolf.
This section could benefit from a discussion of "Double-Stepping".
Enigma K was not exclusively Swiss. H & R supplied the Swiss with a number of then-current commercial Enigmas which by that time had changed their numbering prefix letter from "A" to "K". They were subsequently modified [as on these pages] and rewired by the Swiss.
The rotors labeled as being from Hitler's headquarters were mislabeled by the museum. They are actually a pair of Zusatzwalzen from a marine M4 Enigma. The museum has since replaced them with a set that is more appropriate to the label.
David Hamer's website address for the U-85 material must be updated to:
Inside Enigma; first printing; page 152; Sample Rotor Advancing Data for all Ten Rotors for the first Twenty Letters Typed etc.
The table is correct. The explanation below it is correct up to point 8, where the text deviates from what the table shows correctly. Note that for the 5th letter, the table shows that rotors 2,4 and 6 turn, where the explanation claims that rotors 6, 8 and 10 do not.
Point 8 should read:
8. Remember: rotor advance blocking pins prevent the even numbered rotors to the right from turning.
Now, type in another letter. The drive cog turns the drive rotor "2" at position 14 where there is NO rotor advance blocking pin. Without a rotor advance blocking pin in place, rotor "4" is also rotated and turns to position 30. This means that the drive cog effective FOR THE NEXT LETTER will turn it at position 17. Because all the wheels that turn, turn together, for the current letter the drive cog for rotor "4" still effectively turns it at position 18. Since the table shows that rotor "4" has no drive blocking pin in position 18, this allows rotor "6" to turn to position 30 as well. Rotor "6" does has a drive advance blocking pin at position 18 which blocks the next rotor "8" from turning.
Like rotor "4", rotor "6" turns one step and the drive advancing cog effective for the next letter will turn them at position 17.
1. Page 35, top right, last sentence, starting with “Also,. . .,” I think this is a sentence fragment.
2. Page 36, left column, last paragraph, needs a hyphen between “German” and “made.”
3. Page 59, left column, I was not able to print-out the Miller book The Cryptographic Mathematics of Enigma using this web address. It may be better to email or write for a copy,
4. Page 69, picture caption, the last column, “Kenngruppen,” is not “ . . . the letters to appear in the windows for each rotor (The Starting Position or Groundsetting).” Each 3-letter Kenngruppen group is combined with two random letters to make-up a 5-letter group at the beginning of a Wehrmacht message. The receiver of the message used the 3-letter Kengruppen embedded in the 5-letter group to verify that the message was authentic for that date. Note: This may affect some of the information on pages 69-71.
Professor Thomas B. Perera
Montclair State University
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: (Copyright (c) 2010, 2015: Prof. Tom Perera Ph. D.)
Although all the pictures and text in these internet pages are copyrighted, you may use any of them for your own personal applications including public lectures and demonstrations, publications and websites as long as you mention the www.w1tp.com/enigma Museum. If you plan to offer them for sale to the public in any form, you must email me for permission which I will generally grant as long as you mention my museum: http://w1tp.com/enigma. My email address is given at the bottom of this page. Some of the material may require contacting other copyright owners for commercial use and I will inform you by email. Please also see the disclaimer of warranty.